LESSON 1: Concepts, Nature and Purposes of Curriculum
DATE: April 15, 2011
GUIDE QUESTION 1: Differentiate the Traditional from Modern Concept of Curriculum
CONCEPT OF CURRICULUM
The Concept of Curriculum is a dynamic as the changes that occur in the society. Curriculum is also viewed merely as listing of subjects taught in school. Some define it as a total learning experiences of individuals not only in schools but in society as well.
There are many definitions of curriculum. That is why curriculum is sometimes characterized as fragmentary, elusive and confusing. The numerous definition of curriculum indicates dynamism, it has diverse interpretations of what curriculum is all about. Bilbao et.al(2008) describe curriculum definitions as influenced by modes of thoughts, pedagogies, political as well as cultural experience.
TRADITIONAL VIEWS OF CURRICULUM
o Curriculum is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by teachers for the students to learn or they call it as “Course of the study” and “Syllabus”
oCurriculum is a permanent studies where rules of grammar, reading, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasize. It also emphasize the 3Rs and college education should be grounded on liberal education-Robert M. Hutchins
oArthur Bestor an Essentialist, believes that the mission of school should be intellectual training, hence curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual discipline of grammar, literature and writing. It also includes mathematics, science, history and foreign literature.
oJoseph Swab, defines curriculum as the “Sole Source of Curriculum”. Thus education system, curriculum is divided into chunks of knowledge we called subject areas in basic education such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Others, In college it includes humanities, sciences, languages and many more.
oPhenix, Curriculum should consists entirely of knowledge which comes from various disciplines. DISCIPLINE is a ruling doctrine for curriculum development.
o Curriculum, is viewed as a field of study which is made up of its foundation consisting of philosophical, historical, psychological and social foundatrions; domains of knowledge as well as it research theories and principles. It was taken as scholarly and theoretical. Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written documents or plan of action in accomplishing goals
It is a group of subjects arranged in a certain sequence peculiar to the subject field for the purpose of instruction. This is based on the assumption that the role of education is to fit the individual for his place in the society. Unique needs and interest have been placed second to the common needs of all. Such traditional concepts of curriculum is now being challenged by those who see a broader dimension of curriculum
PROGRESSIVE VIEWS OF CURRICULUM
oCurriculum is not only a listing of school subjects, syllabi, course of the study and list of courses or specific discipline do not make a curriculum. These can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learners.
oCurriculum is a total learning experiences of the individual. Taken from the concept of REFLECTIVE THINKING meaning a unified curricular elements (John Dewey)
oCaswell and Campbell define curriculum as “ all experiences children have under the guidance of the teachers.
oSmith, Stanley and Shores define curriculum as sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.
oMarsh and Willis viewed it as “ Experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students”
The modern dimension of curriculum consists of all experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school. It is composed of the actual experiences and activities of learners inside and outside the classroom under the guidance of the teacher for which the school accepts responsibility. The curriculum becomes an enterprise in guided living and specialized tool for directing the interest and abilities of the learner toward effective participation in the life of the community of the nation.
GUIDE QUESTION 2: Discuss briefly the following terms (a) curriculum plan (b) curriculum Guide (c) curriculum planning (d) curriculum development (e) Course of the Study
NATURE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-of-school to bring about the desired outcomes in school and out-of-school situations or a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining discipline and youth in group ways of thinking and acting. The elements of curriculum are composed of
1. Statement of aims and specific objectives
2. Selection and organization of content
3. Patterns of learning and teaching
4. Program of evaluation of outcomes.
Development connotes changes which are systematic. A change for better means any alteration, modification or improvement of existing condition. To produce positive changes, development should be purposeful, planned and progressive.
GUIDE QUESTION 3: How do curriculum evolves?
There are two models of curriculum development
RALPH TYLER MODEL: 4 Basic Principles called as “TYLER’S RATIONALE”
1. Purpose of the school
2. Educational experiences related to purposes
3. Organization of the experiences and
4. Evaluation of the experiences
HILDA TABA improved Tyler’s rationale by making a linear model focus on teacher who teaches or implement the curriculum who participates in the curriculum development it was called as GRASSROOTS APPROACH”. It is based on seven major steps where teachers could have a major input.
1. Diagnosis of learners need and expectations of the larger society
2. Formulation of learning objectives
3. Selection of learning content
4. Organization of learning content
5. Selection of learning experiences
6. Organization of learning activities
7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
Looking at the curriculum models, the three interacting processes in curriculum development are planning, implementing and evaluating.
GUIDE QUESTION 4: Describe the seven (7) types of curriculum operating in Schools?
1. RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM: proposed by scholars and professional organizations like DepEd, CHED, DOST, PAFTE, BIOTA may recommend the curriculum to be implemented in the elementary and secondary
2. WRITTEN CURRICULUM: appears in school, district, division or country documents. This include documents, course of study or syllabi handed down for implementation. Most of the written documents are made by curriculum experts with participation of teachers. These are pilot-tested or tried out example BEC. Another is written lesson plan of each classroom teacher made up of objectives and planned activities of the teacher.
3. TAUGHT CURRICULUM: what teachers implement or deliver in the classroom or schools. The different planned activities which are put into action in the classroom/ Thses are varied activities that are implemented in order to arrive at the objectives or purposes of written curriculum. These are used by the learners with the guidance of teachers. These is also based on the learning styles of the students and the teaching styles of the teachers.
4. SUPPORTED CURRICULUM: resource-textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials tiowhich support and help in the implementation of the curriculum. For a successful teaching there must be a materials which should support curriculum that includes material resources such as textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials, laboratory equipments, playground, zoos and other facilities. Support curriculum should enable each learner to achieve real and lifelong learning
5. ASSESSED CURRICULUM: that which is tested and evaluated. At the end of teaching episodes series of evaluations are being done by teachers to determine the extent of teaching or to tell if the students are progressing. It uses pencil and paper tests, authentic instruments like portfolio are being utilized.
6. LEARNED CURRICULUM: what the students actually learn and what is measured. This refers to the learning outcomes achieved by the students. Learning outcomes are indicated by the results of the tests and changes in behavior which can either be cognitive affective or psychomotor.
7. HIDDEN CURRICULUM: the unintended curriculum which is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence learning outcomes. Peer influence, student environrment, physical conditions, teacher-learner interaction
GUIDE QUESTION 4: How do philosophy, psychology, history and society influence the development of curriculum?
PURPOSE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
The major foundation of curriculum includes philosophical, historical, psychological and social.
1. PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS- Provides framework for planning, implementing and evaluating curriculum in school. It also helps answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how studnts should learn and what materials and methods should be used. It provides a starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision making. Ornstein and Hunkins (2004) study each educational philosophy and match it to the aim of education, role of education, focus in curriculum and curricular needs.
Educational Philosophy Role of Education Aim of Education Focus in the Curriculum Curriculum Trends
To educate rational person to cultivate the intellect Teacher held student think with reason. Based on Socratic method of oral exposition or recitation.
Explicit or deliberate teaching of traditional values Use of great books and return to liberal arts
To promote the intellectual growth of the individual and educate a competent person The teacher is the sole authority in his or her subject area or field of specialization Essential skills of the 3Rs and essential subject of English, Science, history, Math and Foreign Language Excellence in education, back to basic and cultural literacy
To promote democratic and social living Knowledge leads to growth and development of lifelong learners who actively learn by doing Subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive. Curriculum is focused on students’ interest, human problems and affairs School reforms, relevant and contextualized curriculum, humanistic education
To improve and reconstruct society Education for change Teachers act as agents of change and reforms in various educational projects including research Focus on present and future trends and issues of national and international interests Equality of educational opportunities in education, access to global education
2. HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS: Here are several curriculum theorists and how they view curriculum from historical perspective.
3. PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
Types Psychologist Contributions Learning Outcomes Views
(STEP by STEP process)
Edward Thorndike connectionism 1. Knowing how
2. Knowing what
3. Cognitive strategies or learning skills
4. Motor skills and
5. Attitude, feelings and emotion thru experience Learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter.
Simplistic & Mechanical
Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning
BF Skinner Operant conditioning
Albert Bandura Modeling and observation theory
Robert Gagne Hierarchical learning
Ralph Tyler & Hilda Taba Well-known curricularists
(how individuals process information and how they monitor and manage thinking Jean Piaget Cognitive dev. Stages Learning constitute a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning Exemplified by practices like reflective thinking, creative thinking, intuitive thinking, discovery learning and many others.
Lev Vygotsky Social Constructivism
Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences
Felder Silverman Learning Styles
Daniel Goleman Emotional Intelligences
(How learners develop their human potential)
PROCESS not the PRODUCTS Gestalt Learning can be explained based on wholeness of the problems. Curriculum is concerned on the process not the products Personal need not subject matter, psychological meaning and environmental situations.
Abraham Maslow Theory of human needs for self actualizing persons
Carl Rogers Non-directive lives